The Loanword Typology Meaning List

This list is used by the Loanword Typology project and is based on the list of the Intercontinental Dictionary Series. The meaning descriptions and the typical contexts were added by Martin Haspelmath and Uri Tadmor.

1 The physical world |
2 Kinship |
3 Animals |
4 The body |
5 Food and drink |
6 Clothing and grooming |
7 The house |
8 Agriculture and vegetation |
9 Basic actions and technology |
10 Motion |
11 Possession |
12 Spatial relations |
13 Quantity |
14 Time |
15 Sense perception |
16 Emotions and values |
17 Cognition |
18 Speech and language |
19 Social and political relations |
20 Warfare and hunting |
21 Law |
22 Religion and belief |
23 Modern world |
24 Miscellaneous function words

Semantic field 1: The physical world

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
1.1 the world
The Amazon is the longest river in the world.
1.21 the land 'the hard surface of the earth, when compared to the area covered by sea' The captain sighted land in the distance.
1.212 the soil 'the substance that plants naturally grow in' The soil is pretty good in this area.
1.213 the dust 'dry powder consisting of extremely small bits of matter, found outside or inside buildings' The house had not been cleaned and there was dust on the furniture.
1.214 the mud 'wet earth that has become soft and sticky' His shoes were covered with mud.
1.215 the sand
There is sand on this part of the beach.
1.22 the mountain or hill

1.222 the cliff or precipice 'a high rock with a very steep side (often near the sea)'
1.23 the plain 'expanse of level ground, open country'
1.24 the valley
The valley was surrounded by high mountains.
1.25 the island
Sicily is a Mediterranean island.
1.26 the mainland 'the main area of land that forms a country, as compared to islands near it'
1.27 the shore 'the land along the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean or a lake'
1.28 the cave
The hunter lit a torch and entered the cave.
1.31 the water 'drinking water' The inhabitants get their water from the river.
1.32 the sea
The ship is sailing in the sea.
1.322 calm 'smooth or having only gentle waves' a calm sea
1.323 rough(2) 'with large waves' a rough sea
1.324 the foam
Foam formed on the polluted river.
1.329 the ocean 'any of the world's major bodies of salt water'; generally larger than 'sea' The Pacific Ocean is larger than the Atlantic Ocean.
1.33 the lake
This lake's water is safe for drinking.
1.34 the bay 'an area of the sea that curves inwards towards the land'
1.341 the lagoon 'a body of sea water partly or completely separated from the sea by sand, rock etc., generally smaller than a bay'
1.342 the reef 'a line mass of sharp rocks, often made of coral, near the surface of the sea' The ship was wrecked on a reef.
1.343 the cape 'a large piece of land surrounded on three sides by the sea'
1.35 the wave
The tallest waves are found in the Pacific Ocean.
1.352 the tide 'the regular rising and lowering of the level of the sea'
1.353 the low tide
During low tide the rock is exposed.
1.354 the high tide
The rock is not visible during high tide.
1.36 the river or stream

1.362 the whirlpool 'a powerful current of water that spins around and can pull things down into it'
1.37 the spring or well 'natural (spring) or artificial (well) source of water'
1.38 the swamp
Be careful, there are crocodiles in the swamp.
1.39 the waterfall
The waterfall runs dry in the summer.
1.41 the woods or forest
There are many wild animals in the forest.
1.411 the savanna 'a large open grassland in tropical and subtropical regions'
1.43 the wood 'material that people get from trees' The table is made of wood.
1.44 the stone or rock

1.45 the earthquake
The house was destroyed by an earthquake.
1.51 the sky
There were white clouds in the blue sky.
1.52 the sun
The sun rises in the east.
1.53 the moon
The moon shone brightly in the clear night sky.
1.54 the star
The stars shone brightly in the clear night sky.
1.55 the lightning
I was momentarily blinded by the lightening.
1.56 the thunder
The thunder was deafening.
1.57 the bolt of lightning 'a flash of lightning and a noise of thunder together, which hits something'
1.58 the storm
It's more than just rain-it's a real storm!
1.59 the rainbow
After the storm, a rainbow appeared in the sky.
1.61 the light
The fire gave a bright light.
1.62 the darkness
After the sunset, darkness quickly fell.
1.63 the shade or shadow

1.64 the dew
The trees were wet from the morning dew.
1.71 the air
The air is cool and fresh here in the mountains.
1.72 the wind
The wind blew so hard it knocked down the tree.
1.73 the cloud
There were white clouds in the blue sky.
1.74 the fog
The fog is so thick I can't see the road.
1.75 the rain
After the rain, the sun appeared again.
1.76 the snow
Snow fell all night and covered the city.
1.77 the ice
A layer of ice formed over the lake.
1.771 the arctic lights 'aurora borealis'
1.775 to freeze
It was so cold tonight that the entire lake froze.
1.78 the weather
I hope that tomorrow the weather will be nicer than today.
1.81 the fire 'a fire lit deliberately for heating or cooking' The fire is brightly burning in the fireplace.
1.82 the flame
The flames were so high they reached the helicopter.
1.83 the smoke
Heavy smoke billowed from the burning house.
1.831 the steam
The boiling water filled the room with steam.
1.84 the ash
He let the cigarette ash fall on the floor.
1.841 the embers 'pieces of wood or coal in a fire that are no longer burning but are still red and very hot'
1.851 to burn(1) 'partially or fully destroy with fire' She burnt all her ex-boyfriend's old letters.
1.852 to burn(2) 'be on fire, be consumed by fire' Our house is burning! Call the fire fighters!
1.86 to light 'make something burn' She lit a match.
1.861 to extinguish
The fire fighters extinguished the fire.
1.87 the match 'a small wooden stick used to light a fire'
1.88 the firewood
The boys collected firewood and built a bonfire.
1.89 the charcoal
This fireplace is lit by charcoal, not wood.

Semantic field 2: Kinship

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
2.1 the person 'human being' This table can be lifted by one person.
2.21 the man (vs. woman) The man had a long beard.
2.22 the woman
The woman wore a pretty dress.
2.23 male(1) (of humans, cf. 3.12) I have ten male and twelve female students.
2.24 female(1) (of humans, cf. 3.13) I have ten male and twelve female students.
2.25 the boy
One day this boy will grow to be a man.
2.251 the young man
The young man was not married.
2.26 the girl
One day this girl will grow to be a woman.
2.261 the young woman
The young woman was not married.
2.27 the child(1) 'young human' (not kinship term) (cf. 2.43) Many children were playing in the water.
2.28 the baby 'very young human that cannot walk yet' She's still a baby and can only have milk.
2.31 the husband
She married her husband last year.
2.32 the wife
He married his wife last year.
2.33 to marry
She married a man 10 years her junior.
2.34 the wedding
When we were married, a thousand people came to the wedding.
2.341 the divorce
After the divorce, he married another woman.
2.35 the father
My father came home late last night.
2.36 the mother
My mother came home late last night.
2.37 the parents
My parents live in the village.
2.38 the married man
As a married man he had more privileges.
2.39 the married woman
As a married woman she had more privileges.
2.41 the son
I have one son and one daughter.
2.42 the daughter
I have one son and one daughter.
2.43 the child(2) 'immediate descendant, son or daughter' (kinship term) (cf. 2.27) I have two children, a son and a daughter.
2.44 the brother
I have two brothers, one younger and one older than me.
2.444 the older brother
My older brother is married, but my younger brother still lives at home.
2.445 the younger brother
My older brother is married, but my younger brother still lives at home.
2.45 the sister
I have two sisters, one younger and one older than me.
2.454 the older sister
My older sister is married, but my younger sister still lives at home.
2.455 the younger sister
My older sister is married, but my younger sister still lives at home.
2.456 the sibling
I have two siblings, one brother and one sister.
2.4561 the older sibling
My older sibling is married, but my younger sibling still lives at home.
2.4562 the younger sibling
My older sibling is married, but my younger sibling still lives at home.
2.458 the twins

2.46 the grandfather
My grandfather is 80 years old.
2.461 the old man
That old man looks like my grandfather.
2.47 the grandmother
My grandmother is 70 years old.
2.471 the old woman
That old woman looks like my grandmother.
2.4711 the grandparents
Only one of my grandparents is still alive.
2.48 the grandson
My grandson is 5 years older than my granddaughter.
2.49 the granddaughter
My grandson is 5 years older than my granddaughter.
2.50 the grandchild
By the time she died, she had 23 grandchildren.
2.51 the uncle
I have two uncles, one on my father's side and one on my mother's side.
2.511 the mother's brother

2.512 the father's brother

2.52 the aunt

2.521 the mother's sister

2.522 the father's sister

2.53 the nephew 'sibling's son'
2.54 the niece 'sibling's daughter'
2.541 the sibling's child

2.55 the cousin

2.56 the ancestors

2.57 the descendants

2.61 the father-in-law (of a man)

2.611 the father-in-law (of a woman)

2.62 the mother-in-law (of a man)

2.621 the mother-in-law (of a woman)

2.622 the parents-in-law

2.63 the son-in-law (of a man)

2.631 the son-in-law (of a woman)

2.64 the daughter-in-law (of a man)

2.641 the daughter-in-law (of a woman)

2.6411 the child-in-law

2.6412 the sibling-in-law

2.71 the stepfather

2.72 the stepmother

2.73 the stepson

2.74 the stepdaughter

2.75 the orphan

2.76 the widow

2.77 the widower

2.81 the relatives

2.82 the family 'group of closely related relatives, consisting minimally of parents and children'
2.91 I

2.92 you (singular)

2.93 he/she/it (third person singular pronoun, regardless of gender/sex)
2.931 he

2.932 she

2.933 it

2.94 we

2.941 we (inclusive)

2.942 we (exclusive)

2.95 you (plural)

2.96 they

Semantic field 3: Animals

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
3.11 the animal 'living creature that can move (including or excluding humans)' On the small island they found rabbits, foxes, snakes, mice and many other animals.
3.12 male(2) (of animals) cf. 2.23 Only male lions have manes.
3.13 female(2) (of animals) cf. 2.24 Only female monkeys look after their offspring.
3.15 the livestock 'domestic mammals kept for service or for useful products (cows, horses, donkeys, sheep, goats, pigs, reindeer, camels, etc.)'
3.16 the pasture 'land or field that is covered with grass and is used for livestock to feed on'
3.18 the herdsman 'a man who looks after a herd of animals'
3.19 the stable or stall 'building where domestic animals (any kind, not just horses) are kept'
3.2 the cattle '(collection of) domestic bovine animals'
3.21 the bull 'male bovine (not castrated)'
3.22 the ox 'a castrated bull, often used for working on farms'
3.23 the cow 'female bovine'
3.24 the calf 'young of a cow'
3.25 the sheep
The farmers raised sheep for wool and milk.
3.26 the ram 'male sheep'
3.28 the ewe 'female sheep'
3.29 the lamb 'young of a sheep'
3.32 the boar
The hunter shot the boar in the forest.
3.34 the sow 'female pig'
3.35 the pig
There are three pigs in the sty.
3.36 the goat '(female or generic) goat'
3.37 the he-goat 'male goat'
3.38 the kid 'young of a goat'
3.41 the horse
The policeman mounted the horse and rode away.
3.42 the stallion 'male horse'
3.44 the mare 'female horse'
3.45 the foal or colt 'the young of horses'
3.46 the donkey
That donkey is almost as large as a horse.
3.47 the mule 'an animal that has a donkey and a horse as parents'
3.5 the fowl 'a bird that is kept for its meat and eggs'
3.52 the cock/rooster
The farmer owns ten hens but only two roosters.
3.54 the hen
The farmer owns ten hens but only two roosters.
3.55 the chicken (Fill in only if there is a general term for 'rooster or hen'.)
3.56 the goose 'domesticated goose'
3.57 the duck 'domesticated duck'
3.58 the nest
Many birds build nests in trees.
3.581 the bird

3.582 the seagull

3.583 the heron

3.584 the eagle

3.585 the hawk

3.586 the vulture

3.591 the bat

3.592 the parrot

3.593 the crow

3.594 the dove

3.596 the owl

3.597 the cormorant (Phalacrocorax etc)
3.598 the toucan

3.61 the dog

3.614 the rabbit

3.62 the cat

3.622 the opossum

3.63 the mouse or rat

3.65 the fish

3.652 the fin 'one of the thin body parts that a fish uses to swim'
3.653 the scale 'one of the small flat pieces of skin that cover the bodies of fish'
3.654 the gill

3.655 the shell

3.661 the shark

3.662 the porpoise or dolphin

3.663 the whale

3.664 the stingray

3.665 the freshwater eel

3.71 the wolf

3.72 the lion

3.73 the bear

3.74 the fox

3.75 the deer

3.76 the monkey

3.77 the elephant

3.78 the camel

3.81 the insect

3.811 the head louse

3.8112 the body louse

3.812 the nit 'an egg of a louse that is sometimes found in people's hair'
3.813 the flea

3.814 the centipede

3.815 the scorpion

3.816 the cockroach

3.817 the ant

3.818 the spider

3.819 the spider web

3.82 the bee

3.821 the beeswax

3.822 the beehive

3.823 the wasp

3.83 the fly

3.831 the sandfly or midge or gnat

3.832 the mosquito

3.833 the prawns or shrimp

3.834 the termites (Isoptera)
3.835 the tick (Phthiraptera)
3.84 the worm

3.85 the snake

3.862 the coyote

3.863 the hare

3.865 the quail

3.866 the raccoon

3.869 the squirrel

3.871 the reindeer/caribou

3.872 the elk/moose

3.873 the beaver

3.88 the kangaroo

3.89 the anteater

3.90 the jaguar

3.91 the firefly

3.913 the chameleon

3.917 the buffalo

3.92 the butterfly

3.93 the grasshopper

3.94 the snail

3.95 the frog

3.96 the lizard

3.97 the crocodile or alligator

3.98 the turtle

3.99 the tapir

Semantic field 4: The body

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
4.11 the body 'the body of a live human'
4.12 the skin or hide (skin: of a human; hide: of an animal)
4.13 the flesh

4.14 the hair 'hair on a person's head'
4.142 the beard

4.144 the body hair

4.145 the pubic hair

4.146 the dandruff

4.15 the blood

4.151 the vein or artery

4.16 the bone

4.162 the rib

4.17 the horn (e.g. of a cow)
4.18 the tail

4.19 the back 'the back of a human body'
4.191 the spine

4.2 the head

4.201 the temples 'the two fairly flat areas on each side of people's forehead', or more generally 'the two sides of people's head'
4.202 the skull

4.203 the brain

4.204 the face

4.205 the forehead

4.207 the jaw 'the lower part of people's face that moves when they eat' The boxer punched his opponent on the jaw.
4.208 the cheek

4.209 the chin

4.21 the eye

4.212 the eyebrow

4.213 the eyelid

4.214 the eyelash

4.215 to blink 'to shut and open one's eyes quickly' I blinked as I came out into the sunlight.
4.22 the ear

4.221 the earlobe

4.222 the earwax

4.23 the nose

4.231 the nostril

4.232 the nasal mucus

4.24 the mouth

4.241 the beak

4.25 the lip

4.26 the tongue

4.27 the tooth

4.271 the gums

4.272 the molar tooth

4.28 the neck

4.281 the nape of the neck

4.29 the throat

4.3 the shoulder

4.301 the shoulderblade

4.302 the collarbone

4.31 the arm

4.312 the armpit

4.32 the elbow

4.321 the wrist

4.33 the hand

4.331 the palm of the hand

4.34 the finger

4.342 the thumb

4.344 the fingernail

4.345 the claw 'the sharp curved nail on the toe of an animal or bird' The cat dug his claws into my leg.
4.35 the leg

4.351 the thigh 'the top part of the leg, between the knee and the hip'
4.352 the calf of the leg

4.36 the knee

4.37 the foot

4.371 the ankle

4.372 the heel

4.374 the footprint

4.38 the toe

4.392 the wing

4.393 the feather

4.4 the chest

4.41 the breast 'the breast of a woman'
4.412 the nipple or teat

4.42 the udder 'the part of a cow/female goat/... that hangs down between its back legs and that produces milk'
4.43 the navel

4.431 the belly

4.44 the heart

4.441 the lung

4.45 the liver

4.451 the kidney

4.452 the spleen

4.46 the stomach (internal organ, not 'belly') Her stomach could not digest the tough meat.
4.461 the intestines or guts

4.462 the waist

4.463 the hip

4.464 the buttocks 'the fleshy part of one's body that people sit on'
4.465 the sinew or tendon

4.47 the womb

4.49 the testicles

4.492 the penis

4.493 the vagina 'the passage from a woman's outer sexual organs to her womb'
4.494 the vulva 'the outer part of a woman's sexual organs'
4.51 to breathe

4.52 to yawn

4.521 to hiccough

4.53 to cough

4.54 to sneeze

4.55 to perspire

4.56 to spit

4.57 to vomit

4.58 to bite

4.59 to lick

4.591 to dribble 'to let saliva flow out of one's mouth onto one's chin' Watch out, the baby is dribbling on your shirt!
4.61 to sleep

4.612 to snore

4.62 to dream

4.63 to wake up (intransitive) I wake up at seven every morning.
4.64 to fart

4.65 to piss

4.66 to shit

4.67 to have sex

4.68 to shiver

4.69 to bathe (intransitive) She likes to bathe before going to bed.
4.71 to beget 'become the father of'
4.72 to be born

4.73 pregnant

4.732 to conceive
She conceived her first child while still in England.
4.74 to be alive
I thought he was dead, but he's still alive.
4.741 the life
He had a good long life.
4.75 to die

4.7501 dead

4.751 to drown
The dog fell into the river and drowned.
4.76 to kill

4.77 the corpse 'body of a dead human'
4.771 the carcass 'body of a dead animal'
4.78 to bury 'bury a dead person'
4.79 the grave

4.81 strong
She's a strong woman and can lift 50 kilos.
4.82 weak
He's so weak that he cannot even lift 5 kilos.
4.83 healthy

4.84 sick/ill

4.841 the fever

4.842 the goitre/goiter 'a disease of the thyroid gland that makes one's neck very swollen'
4.843 the cold 'the common cold' He caught a cold after swimming in the lake at night.
4.844 the disease

4.85 the wound or sore

4.852 the bruise

4.853 the swelling

4.854 the itch
The itch was caused by an insect bite.
4.8541 to scratch 'to scratch an itch' Don't scratch an insect bite!
4.855 the blister

4.856 the boil 'a painful infected swelling under someone's skin' The boy's body is covered in boils.
4.857 the pus

4.858 the scar

4.86 to cure
The treatment cured the patient's illness.
4.87 the physician

4.88 the medicine 'drug, medication'
4.89 the poison

4.91 tired

4.912 to rest

4.92 lazy

4.93 bald

4.94 lame

4.95 deaf

4.96 mute

4.97 blind

4.98 drunk 'intoxicated' They became drunk after drinking too much beer.
4.99 naked
The child does not like to wear clothes, and goes around naked.

Semantic field 5: Food and drink

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
5.11 to eat (transitive) The child has eaten the fruit.
5.12 the food

5.121 cooked (contrasting with 'raw') Cooked bananas taste even better than raw bananas.
5.122 raw
Cooked bananas taste even better than raw bananas.
5.123 ripe
Unripe bananas have a green colour, whereas ripe bananas are yellow.
5.124 unripe
Unripe bananas have a green colour, whereas ripe bananas are yellow.
5.125 rotten (about fruit) a rotten apple or mango
5.13 to drink
drink water
5.14 to be hungry

5.141 the famine

5.15 to be thirsty

5.16 to suck (transitive) The baby is sucking milk.
5.18 to chew
This meat is so tough I can hardly chew it!
5.181 to swallow
You need to chew this meat well before you can swallow it.
5.19 to choke 'prevent from breathing (not necessarily leading to death)' The smoke was choking the firefighters./The assailant choked his victim.
5.21 to cook (transitive) She was cooking a soup for her mother.
5.22 to boil (intransitive) The water is boiling.
5.23 to roast or fry

5.24 to bake 'in an oven, using dry heat' (transitive) We are baking some bread.
5.25 the oven

5.26 the pot 'a container used for cooking which is round, deep, and usually made of metal' He is cooking soup for the whole family in a big pot.
5.27 the kettle 'a metal container with a lid, a handle, and a spout (= for pouring), used to boil water' The water is boiling in the kettle.
5.28 the pan 'a round and relatively flat metal container used for cooking, with one long handle'
5.31 the dish 'a relatively flat, round vessel from which food is served on the table'
5.32 the plate 'a flat and usually round vessel that you eat from'
5.33 the bowl 'a concave container that is open at the top, usually used to hold food'
5.34 the jug/pitcher 'a container for holding and pouring liquids with a handle and a spout'
5.35 the cup 'a drinking vessel not made of glass'
5.36 the saucer 'a small dish for placing a cup'
5.37 the spoon
He ate the soup with a spoon.
5.38 the knife(1) 'knife for eating' (as opposed to knife used for preparing food)
5.39 the fork 'tool used for picking up and eating food, with a handle and three or four points'
5.391 the tongs 'a tool that consists of two movable bars joined at one end, used to pick up an object'
5.41 the meal 'an occasion when one eats food, for example breakfast or lunch' Dinner is the main meal of the day for most people.
5.42 the breakfast 'the meal one has in the morning'
5.43 the lunch 'a meal eaten in the middle of the day'
5.44 the dinner 'the main meal of the day, eaten in the middle of the day or in the evening'
5.45 the supper 'the last meal of the evening'
5.46 to peel 'remove the skin from food or vegetables' This knife is good for peeling potatoes.
5.47 to sieve or to strain 'separate solid things from a liquid by pouring the mixture through a sieve (= a container with very small holes in it)' She strained the coffee before serving it.
5.48 to scrape 'remove something from a surface, using the edge of a knife, stick, etc.' Scrape the carrots and slice them thinly.
5.49 to stir or to mix

5.51 the bread 'a common important food made from flour, water, and yeast'
5.53 the dough 'a mixture of flour and water ready to be baked into bread, pastry etc.'
5.54 to knead 'press a dough many times with one's hands' Knead the dough for three minutes.
5.55 the flour

5.56 to crush or to grind 'press [grain] in order to break it into very small pieces or powder'
5.57 the mill

5.58 the mortar(1) 'a hard bowl in which substances are crushed with a pestle'
5.59 the pestle 'a short stick with a heavy round end, used for crushing things in a mortar'
5.61 the meat 'the flesh of animals or birds eaten as food'
5.63 the sausage

5.64 the soup
Clear chicken soup can relieve the symptoms of the common cold.
5.65 the vegetables 'an edible plant grown in gardens that is not sweet'
5.66 the bean

5.7 the potato

5.71 the fruit generic name for tree fruit covering apples, pears, mangos, oranges, etc.
5.712 the bunch 'a group of flowers/fruit that are held together'
5.75 the fig

5.76 the grape

5.77 the nut

5.78 the olive

5.79 the oil 'a smooth, thick liquid made from plants or animals, used especially in cooking'
5.791 the grease or fat

5.81 the salt

5.82 the pepper 'black pepper, a table seasoning produced from the berries of the plant Piper nigrum'
5.821 the chili pepper 'the fruit of the plant Capsicum'
5.84 the honey

5.85 the sugar

5.86 the milk

5.87 to milk

5.88 the cheese

5.89 the butter

5.9 the drink 'any kind of beverage'
5.91 the mead

5.92 the wine

5.93 the beer

5.94 the fermented drink

5.97 the egg

5.971 the yolk 'the yellow part in the centre of an egg'
5.983 the manioc bread

Semantic field 6: Clothing and grooming

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
6.11 to put on (transitive) The child can already put on his clothes by himself.
6.12 the clothing or clothes

6.13 the tailor

6.21 the cloth 'woven fabric'
6.22 the wool

6.23 the linen 'fabric woven of flax'
6.24 the cotton

6.25 the silk

6.27 the felt

6.28 the fur

6.29 the leather

6.31 to spin 'to draw out and twist fiber into thread'
6.32 the spindle 'a stick used in spinning fiber into thread'
6.33 to weave
The village women weave cloth from cotton thread.
6.34 the loom

6.35 to sew

6.36 the needle(1) (for sewing)
6.37 the awl 'pointed tool for marking or piercing wood or leather'
6.38 the thread

6.39 to dye
The weaver dyed the cloth bright red.
6.41 the cloak

6.411 the poncho

6.42 the (woman's) dress 'garment worn by women over the torso extending to the legs'
6.43 the coat

6.44 the shirt

6.45 the collar

6.46 the skirt

6.461 the grass-skirt

6.48 the trousers

6.49 the sock or stocking

6.51 the shoe

6.52 the boot

6.54 the shoemaker

6.55 the hat or cap

6.57 the belt

6.58 the glove

6.59 the veil
During the wedding the bride wore a veil that hid her face.
6.61 the pocket (in a garment) He put the money in his shirt pocket.
6.62 the button

6.63 the pin
The torn shirt was held together by pins.
6.71 the ornament or adornment
Her hair was adorned with silver oranments.
6.72 the jewel

6.73 the ring (for finger)
6.74 the bracelet
She wore a solid gold bracelet.
6.75 the necklace
Her necklace was made of pearls and coral.
6.76 the bead

6.77 the earring
The pirate wore one earring.
6.78 the headband or headdress

6.79 the tattoo

6.81 the handkerchief or rag

6.82 the towel

6.91 the comb

6.92 the brush
He used the brush to thoroughly brush his hair.
6.921 the plait/braid 'a length of hair that has been separated into three parts and then woven together'
6.93 the razor
While he was shaving the razor cut his face.
6.94 the ointment

6.95 the soap
A bar of soap was placed by the sink.
6.96 the mirror
He looked at himself in the mirror that hung on the wall.
6.98 the snowshoe
She put on her snowshoes before going out into the cold.

Semantic field 7: The house

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
7.11 to live 'dwell, reside' A family of five lives in that large house.
7.12 the house

7.13 the hut

7.131 the garden-house

7.14 the tent

7.15 the yard or court 'enclosed area atttached to a house, whether outside or an inner court'
7.16 the men's house

7.17 the cookhouse

7.18 the meeting house

7.21 the room

7.22 the door or gate

7.221 the doorpost
= 'jamb, side post of a door'
7.23 the lock

7.231 the latch or door-bolt

7.232 the padlock

7.24 the key

7.25 the window

7.26 the floor

7.27 the wall
The walls of our house are very thick.
7.31 the fireplace

7.32 the stove
She put the kettle on the stove and lit the fire.
7.33 the chimney

7.37 the ladder

7.42 the bed

7.421 the pillow

7.422 the blanket

7.43 the chair

7.44 the table

7.45 the lamp or torch

7.46 the candle

7.47 the shelf 'a long flat narrow board fixed onto a wall or in a frame or cupboard, used for putting things on or stroing things on' Put it back on the top shelf.
7.48 the trough 'a long narrow open container that holds water or food for animals'
7.51 the roof

7.52 the thatch 'natural roofing material such as straw, reeds, leaves, etc.'
7.53 the ridgepole 'the highest horizontal beam in a roof'
7.54 the rafter 'a horizontal beam that supports the roof'
7.55 the beam

7.56 the post or pole = 'a strong upright piece of wood, metal etc. that is fixed into the ground, especially to support something' a fence post
7.57 the board

7.58 the arch

7.61 the mason

7.62 the brick

7.63 the mortar(2) 'a mixture of lime, sand and water, used in building for joining bricks or stones together'
7.64 the adobe 'earth and straw that are made into bricks for building houses'
7.65 the camp
The nomads built a camp in which they would stay for a week.
7.66 the hammock

7.67 to tan 'to make animal skin into leather by by treating it with tannin (=a kind of acid)' to tan hides

Semantic field 8: Agriculture and vegetation

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
8.11 the farmer
The poor farmer did not own the land he cultivated.
8.12 the field (for cultivation) The field was planted with cabbage.
8.121 the paddy 'wet land in which rice is grown' The paddy provided rice for the entire village.
8.13 the garden
Behind the house was a garden where the family grew vegetables.
8.15 to cultivate
There is no more land left to cultivate.
8.16 the fence

8.17 the ditch 'a long narrow hole cut into the ground at the side of a field, road etc., especially for water to flow through'
8.21 to plough/plow

8.212 the furrow

8.22 to dig

8.23 the spade 'tool with handle and blade used for digging in the ground'
8.24 the shovel 'tool with handle and scoop for lifting and throwing material such as soil'
8.25 the hoe 'tool with handle and blade with two or more prongs used for weeding, raking, etc.'
8.26 the fork(2)/pitchfork

8.27 the rake

8.28 the digging stick (=yamstick)

8.29 the lasso

8.31 to sow

8.311 the seed

8.32 to mow

8.33 the sickle or scythe

8.34 to thresh

8.35 the threshing-floor

8.41 the harvest

8.42 the grain (barley, oats, etc.)
8.43 the wheat

8.44 the barley

8.45 the rye

8.46 the oats

8.47 the maize/corn
The bought corn-on-the-cob from the vendor in the park.
8.48 the rice 'cooked rice as a meal' They ate their rice with the stew.
8.51 the grass
Green grass was growing in the forest clearing.
8.52 the hay

8.53 the plant

8.531 to plant

8.54 the root

8.55 the branch

8.56 the leaf

8.57 the flower

8.6 the tree

8.61 the oak

8.62 the beech

8.63 the birch

8.64 the pine

8.65 the fir

8.66 the acorn

8.67 the vine

8.68 the tobacco

8.69 to smoke 'to smoke a cigarette'
8.691 the pipe (for smoking)
8.72 the tree stump

8.73 the tree trunk

8.74 the forked branch

8.75 the bark

8.76 the sap
The farmers collected the sap from the maple trees to make syrup.
8.81 the palm tree
Dates grow on palm trees.
8.82 the coconut (fruit, not tree) The boy picked a green coconut and drank its juice.
8.83 the citrus fruit

8.84 the banana
The monkey peeled the banana and ate it.
8.85 the banyan

8.91 the sweet potato

8.911 the millet or sorghum

8.912 the yam

8.92 the cassava/manioc (the tuber, rather than its plant or products) The farmer grew cassava/manioc to feed his family.
8.93 the gourd

8.931 the pumpkin or squash

8.94 the bamboo

8.941 the sugar cane

8.96 the fish poison (in Amazonia, a kind of root is apparently used as fish poison)
8.97 the nettle

8.98 the mushroom

8.991 the larch a tree (Larix) of the pine family
8.993 the needle(2) 'needle of coniferous tree'
8.996 the cone 'fruit of a pine or fir tree'

Semantic field 9: Basic actions and technology

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
9.11 to do (pure action meaning) A has climbed on a tree. B says to A: "What are you doing up there?"
9.111 to make 'produce by working' I'm going to make a cake for Lisi's birthday.
9.12 the work
I can't go out because I have too much work.
9.14 to bend
I'll bend the branches away so that you can get through.
9.15 to fold
She folded the piece of paper and put it in the envelope.
9.16 to tie
He tied his dog to a tree.
9.161 to untie
He untied his dog from the tree.
9.18 the chain

9.19 the rope
They tied up the prisoner with rope.
9.192 the knot
Can you help me undo this knot?
9.21 to strike or hit or beat

9.211 to pound 'with fist' He pounded the door with his fist.
9.22 to cut
The thieves cut the phone wires and entered the house.
9.221 to cut down
Before building the road, we first have to cut down many trees.
9.222 to chop
chopping wood for the fire
9.223 to stab
Brutus stabbed Caesar to death.
9.23 the knife(2) 'knife for preparing food' To chop the onions I need a knife.
9.24 the scissors or shears

9.25 the axe/ax

9.251 the adze 'a sharp tool with the blade at a right angle to the handle, used to shape pieces of wood'
9.26 to break
The thieves got into the house by breaking a window.
9.261 broken 'out of order, not working' The radio is broken, it won't turn on.
9.27 to split
This log is too large, we have to split it into two.
9.28 to tear 'damage [paper/cloth] by pulling it too hard' She tore a piece of her blouse to use as a bandange.
9.29 to skin 'strip or pull off the skin or hide of' The cook skinned the chicken before frying it.
9.31 to rub
He rubbed the fragrant leaves between his fingers.
9.311 to wipe
The waiter wiped the table with a dirty rag.
9.32 to stretch 'make [something elastic] bigger or looser by pulling it' Don't stretch the rubber band too much.
9.33 to pull 'use one's hand to make something move towards one or in the direction that one is moving' Help me move the piano: you push and I'll pull.
9.34 to spread out
They spread out the mat on the ground and sat on it.
9.341 to hang up
Hang your coat up on the hook.
9.342 to press 'push something firmly against a surface' The little boys pressed their noses against the glass.
9.343 to squeeze 'press something tightly' She squeezed some oranges and drank the juice.
9.35 to pour
He poured the wine into the glass.
9.36 to wash (transitive) She washed her son's feet.
9.37 to sweep 'clean the dust/dirt from the floor/ground using a broom' He swept the path in front of the house.
9.38 the broom 'a large brush with a long handle, used for sweeping floors'
9.422 the tool 'an artifact (such as a hammer, a saw or a screwdriver) held in one's hand to help one in performing a particular job'
9.43 the carpenter 'someone whose job is making and repairing wooden objects'
9.44 to build
build a house
9.46 to bore 'make a deep round hole in a hard surface'
9.461 to hollow out 'make a hole or empty space by removing the inside part of something'
9.48 the saw
One needs a saw to cut down a tree.
9.49 the hammer

9.5 the nail 'a thin pointed piece of metal which one forces into a piece of wood with a hammer to fasten the wood to something else'
9.56 the glue 'a sticky substance used for joining things together'
9.6 the blacksmith

9.61 to forge 'make something from a piece of metal by heating the metal and shaping it' From a piece of scrap iron, the blacksmith forged a sword blade.
9.62 the anvil 'a heavy iron block on which pieces of metal are shaped using a hammer'
9.63 to cast 'form metal objects by pouring the molten metal into molds' The goldsmith melted the coins and cast them into a goblet.
9.64 the gold
The bracelet is made of gold.
9.65 the silver
The necklace is made of silver.
9.66 the copper
The coin is made of copper.
9.67 the iron

9.68 the lead (a kind of metal)
9.69 the tin or tinplate
The cup was made of tin.
9.71 the potter
The potter made jars.
9.72 to mould/mold 'form articles from clay or other plastic material by molding with the hands' She molded the clay into a dish before firing it.
9.73 the clay

9.74 the glass (the substance, not the drinking vessel) The window is made of glass.
9.75 to weave or plait/braid 'weave (a basket) or plait/braid (someone's hair)'
9.76 the basket
She carried the fruit home in a basket.
9.77 the mat 'a small piece of thick rough material which covers part of the floor'
9.771 the rug 'a piece of thick cloth or wool that is smaller than a carpet and is put on the floor as decoration'
9.78 the netbag 'bag made of net used in Papua to carry things'
9.79 the fan
The lady had a delicate fan made of sandalwood.
9.791 to fan
People in the audience were fanning themselves with their programmes.
9.81 to carve 'cut shapes out of wood or stone' Michaelangelo carved this figure from a single block of marble.
9.82 the sculptor
Rodin was a French sculptor.
9.83 the statue
The sculptor made a statue of a woman.
9.84 the chisel 'a metal tool with a sharp edge, used to cut wood or stone'
9.87 the boomerang
The boomerang hit the wallaby and then came back to the hunter.
9.88 the paint 'a liquid that one puts on a surface to make it a particular colour'
9.89 to paint 'put paint on a surface' We need to paint our house.
9.90 to draw water
She lowered the bucket into the well and drew water.
9.91 the peg
The scouts fastened the tent to the ground with wooden pegs.
9.92 the tumpline 'a strap slung over the forehead or chest used (especially by native Americans) for carrying packs or loads'
9.93 the whetstone
Before cutting the meat, he sharpened his knife with a whetstone.

Semantic field 10: Motion

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
10.11 to move (transitive) This rock is so heavy that it cannot be moved.
10.12 to turn (transitive) to turn one's head
10.13 to turn around (intransitive) He heard someone call out his name and turned around.
10.14 to wrap
He wrapped the fish in leaves and steamed it.
10.15 to roll (transitive) He rolled the log down the hill.
10.16 to drop (transitive) We dropped the stone into the water.
10.17 to twist (transitive) She twisted the wire around the branch.
10.21 to rise
The sun rises in the east.
10.22 to raise or lift

10.23 to fall
The ripe coconut fell on the ground.
10.24 to drip
The tap is dripping, shut it tightly!
10.25 to throw
Don't throw stones, it's dangerous!
10.252 to catch
She caught the ball and passed it to her team mate.
10.26 to shake (transitive) Shake the bottle before pouring out the sauce.
10.32 to flow
The river flows to the sea.
10.33 to sink (intransitive) The coconut fell into the water and sank.
10.34 to float (intransitive) The raft floated on the river.
10.35 to swim
He drowned because he could not swim.
10.351 to dive
Diving too deeply is dangerous.
10.352 to splash
The girl splashed water in the boy's face.
10.36 to sail
The ship sailed from America to Australia.
10.37 to fly (intransitive) Look at that bird flying up in the sky!
10.38 to blow (intransitive) The wind is blowing hard.
10.41 to crawl
The baby is still crawling, it can't walk yet.
10.412 to kneel 'to get down on one's knees' The messenger kneeled before the king.
10.413 to crouch 'lower one's body close to the ground by bending one's knees completely' She crouched under the sink to fix the pipes.
10.42 to slide or slip (intransitive)
10.43 to jump
The children were so happy they jumped up and down.
10.431 to kick
He kicked the ball.
10.44 to dance
Though the music stopped they kept on dancing.
10.45 to walk (intransitive) The children walk to school every day.
10.451 to limp
After his foot injury he limped for months.
10.46 to run (intransitive) They ran all the way to school.
10.47 to go
Sometimes I go to school by car, sometimes on foot.
10.471 to go up
I went up on the roof to get a better view.
10.472 to climb
If you want to pick mangos, you must climb the tree.
10.473 to go down
Come down from the roof or you'll fall down.
10.474 to go out
Get out of here before you get hurt!
10.48 to come
When I came to school it was still closed.
10.481 to come back
He left and then came back an hour later.
10.49 to leave (intransitive) 'depart, go away' The guest arrived yesterday and left this morning.
10.491 to disappear
The man disappeared without a trace.
10.51 to flee
Because of the fire they had to flee their home.
10.52 to follow
I came here first, my family followed me later.
10.53 to pursue
The policeman pursued the thief.
10.55 to arrive
The guest arrived yesterday and left this morning.
10.56 to approach
As we approached the city we could see the lights in the distance.
10.57 to enter
She entered the room and sat down.
10.58 to go or return home
After working in the field the farmer went home.
10.61 to carry
She carried her baby home.
10.612 to carry in hand
She carried a stone in her hand.
10.613 to carry on shoulder
He carried the books on his shoulder.
10.614 to carry on head
She carried the fruit basket on her head.
10.615 to carry under the arm
She carried her bag under her arm.
10.62 to bring
Please bring me the book you are holding.
10.63 to send
She sent her parents some money.
10.64 to lead
The dog led the hunter to the fox.
10.65 to drive (transitive) He can drive a car, but not a truck.
10.66 to ride
She rides her horse to work every day.
10.67 to push
Don't push me or I'll fall down.
10.71 the road
Many cars drove up and down the road.
10.72 the path
The path leads from the house to the field.
10.74 the bridge
A beautiful bridge stood over the river.
10.75 the cart or wagon
The cart was pulled by a horse.
10.76 the wheel
The car has four wheels.
10.77 the axle

10.78 the yoke

10.79 the sledge/sled

10.81 the ship

10.83 the boat

10.831 the canoe

10.832 the outrigger

10.84 the raft

10.85 the oar

10.851 the paddle

10.852 to row

10.86 the rudder

10.87 the mast

10.88 the sail

10.89 the anchor

10.91 the port (= harbour)
10.92 to land

Semantic field 11: Possession

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
11.11 to have 'have temporarily (including things that one does not strictly speaking possess)' The boy has a flower in his hand.
11.12 to own 'possess, have permanently as legal possession' The woman owns a car.
11.13 to take 'seize a concrete object in the hand and hold it' I took my bag and walked to the market square.
11.14 to grasp 'take and hold something firmly with one's hands' Make sure you grasp the rope with both hands.
11.15 to hold 'to have something in one's hand or arms' I held the baby in my arms.
11.16 to get 'come into possession of something' (neutral between 'obtain' and 'receive')
11.17 to keep 'retain, remain in possession of something' I like the hat you gave me and I'd like to keep it.
11.18 the thing 'concrete object of any kind' My brother is rich, and many things in his house are never used.
11.21 to give 'physical transfer of an object with one's hands that passes into possession of the recipient' The girl gave the boy a flower.
11.22 to give back 'give something that was earlier in the recipient's possession' I lent you my watch, and you haven't given it back yet.
11.24 to preserve 'save something/someone from being harmed or destroyed' I think these traditional customs should be preserved. / The wreck was preserved by the muddy sea bed.
11.25 to rescue 'make someone safe from danger or harm' He saved his friend from drowning.
11.27 to destroy 'damage something so badly that it cannot be repaired or so that it no longer exists' The school was completely destroyed by fire.
11.28 to injure 'to cause bodily harm' The falling tree injured two loggers.
11.29 to damage
The fire damaged the house but it was quickly repaired.
11.31 to look for
I am looking for my purse; I must have lost it on my way.
11.32 to find
I had lost my purse but I found it again.
11.33 to lose
I had lost my purse but I found it again.
11.34 to let go 'stop holding something/someone' She let go of the rope.
11.43 the money
A thousand dollars is a lot of money.
11.44 the coin
I don't have any coins left, only paper money.
11.51 rich
The beggar invested his money so well that he became rich.
11.52 poor
After he became rich, he donated a lot of money to poor people.
11.53 the beggar
The beggar collected money in a cup.
11.54 stingy
He is so stingy he doesn't heat his house even in winter.
11.61 to lend
Can you lend me your ladder?
11.62 to borrow
Can I borrow your ladder?
11.63 to owe
My brother owes me 100 Euros.
11.64 the debt 'sum of money that one owes' He now had enough money to pay off his father's outstanding debts.
11.65 to pay
I paid 100 Euros for this book.
11.66 the bill 'written list showing how much a customer has to pay'
11.69 the tax
If you don't pay your taxes, you go to jail.
11.77 to hire 'employ' We need to hire/employ more workers if we want to finish the task in time.
11.78 the wages 'the money a worker receives for the work done' The job's not very exciting, but he earns a good wage.
11.79 to earn 'receive [money] for regular work' The job's not very exciting, but he earns a good wage.
11.81 to buy
I bought ten bananas for a dollar.
11.82 to sell
He sold his car for five thousand Euros.
11.83 to trade or barter
The farmer traded his cow for three goats.
11.84 the merchant 'someone who buys and sells goods in large quantities'
11.85 the market (place) He is going to the market to buy vegetables.
11.86 the shop/store
There are no shops in the market, only open stalls.
11.87 the price
The price of these bananas is two dollars a bunch.
11.88 expensive
Mangos are more expensive than bananas.
11.89 cheap
Bananas are so cheap even poor people can afford them.
11.91 to share 'let someone have part of something that belongs to oneself' The girl shared the cookies with her brother.
11.92 to weigh 'have a certain weight' The bag weighs 10 kilograms.

Semantic field 12: Spatial relations

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
12.01 after
After the storm we went outside again.
12.011 behind
I can't see the tree, it's behind the house.
12.012 in

12.013 at

12.02 beside
Beside the house there are some trees.
12.03 down
She looked down into the well.
12.04 before
Before the war people freely crossed the border.
12.041 in front of
In front of the house is a white gate.
12.05 inside
What's inside the box?
12.06 outside
It's cold outside.
12.07 under
He hid under the table.
12.08 up
She looked up into the sky.
12.081 above
Above the house flew a dove.
12.11 the place
This place is too hot, let's look for a cooler place.
12.12 to put
He put the book on the table.
12.13 to sit
Let's sit under the tree.
12.14 to lie down
She lay down in her bed but could not fall asleep.
12.15 to stand
He got tired of standing and sat down.
12.16 to remain
I plan to remain here for a week.
12.17 the remains
After the earthquake, some people continued to live in the remains of their homes.
12.21 to gather (transitive) He gathered wild mushrooms for dinner.
12.212 to pick up
She picked up the stone and then threw it down again.
12.213 to pile up (transitive) He piled up the mushrooms he had collected.
12.22 to join (transitive) He joined the two boards with nails.
12.23 to separate (transitive) He separated the two boards by pulling out the nails.
12.232 to divide (transitive) She divided the bananas equally among the children.
12.24 to open (transitive) He opened the door and went out.
12.25 to shut (transitive) After coming in, he shut the door.
12.26 to cover
He covered the child with a blanket.
12.27 to hide 'conceal' (transitive) Hide your money here, so no one can find it.
12.31 high
The eagle flew so high it was hardly visible.
12.32 low
The bat flew so low its wings brushed against the bush.
12.33 the top
The top of the tree caught fire.
12.34 the bottom
The coin was lying on the bottom of the pond.
12.35 the end(1) (spatial) At the end of the village stood a small house.
12.352 pointed
He pierced the leather with a pointed knife.
12.353 the edge

12.36 the side
There were trees on both sides of the house.
12.37 the middle center
12.41 right(1)
on the right side
12.42 left
on the left side
12.43 near (adverb) She was standing near enough to hear what they said.
12.44 far (adverb)
12.45 the east

12.46 the west

12.47 the north

12.48 the south

12.53 to grow

12.54 to measure (transitive)
12.541 the fathom 'a unit of length (originally outstretched arms), equal to about 1.8 metres'
12.55 big

12.56 small

12.57 long

12.58 tall

12.59 short

12.61 wide

12.62 narrow

12.63 thick (in dimension; as opposed to thick in density, e.g. thick soup, hair) a thick board
12.65 thin (in dimension; as opposed to thin in density, e.g. thin soup, hair) a thin board
12.67 deep

12.68 shallow

12.71 flat

12.73 straight

12.74 crooked (opposite of straight)
12.75 the hook

12.76 the corner

12.77 the cross

12.78 the square

12.81 round

12.82 the circle

12.83 the ball 'sphere'
12.84 the line

12.85 the hole

12.92 similar

12.93 to change
The baby changed her life.
13 zero
The number ten is written as a one and a zero.

Semantic field 13: Quantity

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
13.01 one
one tree
13.02 two
two trees
13.03 three
three trees
13.04 four
four trees
13.05 five
five trees
13.06 six
six trees
13.07 seven
seven trees
13.08 eight
eight trees
13.09 nine
nine trees
13.1 ten
ten trees
13.101 eleven
eleven trees
13.102 twelve
twelve trees
13.103 fifteen
fifteen trees
13.104 twenty
twenty trees
13.105 a hundred
a hundred trees
13.106 a thousand
a thousand trees
13.107 to count 'count objects in a set in order to determine the total' The teacher was counting the children as they got on the bus.
13.14 all 'the complete set of' (applied to a conceptually countable and nonsingular noun) All the children got on the bus.
13.15 many 'a large number of' (applied to a conceptually countable and nonsingular noun) There are many children on the bus.
13.16 more 'a larger number of' Today I found more mushrooms than yesterday.
13.17 few 'a large number of' There are few mushrooms in this forest.
13.18 enough
Today I found enough mushrooms for our supper.
13.181 some 'a certain number of' (applied to a conceptually countable and nonsingular noun) Today we found some mushrooms.
13.19 the crowd 'a large number of people in one place' There was a large crowd of people waiting outside the theatre.
13.21 full
An empty pot is easier to carry than a full pot.
13.22 empty
An empty pot is easier to carry than a full pot.
13.23 the part
The front part of the car was badly damaged.
13.231 the piece
a piece of cheese
13.24 the half 'either of the two equal parts into which something is divided' She cut the banana in two halves and gave one half to her husband.
13.33 only
Saturn is the only planet with rings.
13.331 alone
Don't leave me alone.
13.34 first
You are the first person I see today.
13.35 last
You were last person I saw before going to bed.
13.36 second
You are the second person I see today.
13.37 the pair 'two things of the same kind that are used together' a pair of shoes
13.38 twice/two times
He came over twice today.
13.42 third
You are the third person I see today.
13.44 three times
He came over three times today.

Semantic field 14: Time

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
14.11 the time
Only time can heal her pain.
14.12 the age 'time of life' At this age the baby can only drink milk.
14.13 new
I bought a new car.
14.14 young
He is too young to eat solid foods.
14.15 old
She is so old that all her teeth are gone.
14.16 early
Come early, otherwise you won't get any cake.
14.17 late
Don't come late, otherwise you won't get any cake.
14.18 now
I was sick last week, but I'm fine now.
14.19 immediately
Come here immediately!
14.21 fast 'quickly' (adverb) That man runs as fast as a horse.
14.22 slow (adverb) That horse runs as slow as a human.
14.23 to hurry (intransitive) Please hurry, or we'll be late.
14.24 to be late to tarry We expected her by 10 o'clock, but she was late.
14.25 to begin (transitive) I began the work yesterday.
14.251 the beginning beginning At the beginning it was difficult, but now it's easier.
14.252 to last 'take up' The dry season lasts three months.
14.26 the end(2) (temporal) At the end of the harvest there is a celebration.
14.27 to finish
I began building my house five years ago, but only finished it this year.
14.28 to cease 'to stop doing something' The two sides promised to cease all hostile acts against each other.
14.29 ready
I'm ready to go, but my husband is still in the shower.
14.31 always
He always comes late.
14.32 often
He often comes late, but today he's on time.
14.33 sometimes
Sometimes he comes late, but more often he's on time.
14.331 soon
Don't go yet, he'll be here soon.
14.332 for a long time
He waited for a long time, but she never came.
14.34 never
I never eat pork.
14.35 again
I was there yesterday, but today I'm going again.
14.41 the day(1) (as opposed to 'night') The days are very hot here, but the nights are cool.
14.411 the day(2) (unit of time, 24 hours) I am staying here for two days.
14.42 the night
The days very hot here, but the nights are cool.
14.43 the dawn
The sun comes up at dawn.
14.44 the morning
The children go to school in the morning.
14.45 the midday
We prefer having dinner at midday rather than in the evening.
14.451 the afternoon
In the aftertoon I like to take a nap.
14.46 the evening
We prefer having dinner at midday rather than in the evening.
14.47 today
He's not in today, please call again tomorrow morning.
14.48 tomorrow
He's not in today, please call again tomorrow morning.
14.481 the day after tomorrow (adverbial use) She's leaving tomorrow and coming back the day after tomorrow.
14.49 yesterday
She left the day before yesterday and arrived yesterday.
14.491 the day before yesterday (adverbial use) She left the day before yesterday and arrived yesterday.
14.51 the hour
The day here lasts 15 hours in midsummer.
14.53 the clock
That clock on the wall was bought by my grandfather.
14.61 the week
I'm planning to stay for a week or two.
14.62 Sunday
On Sunday we go to church.
14.63 Monday
On Monday we go to work.
14.64 Tuesday
On Tuesday we're having a party.
14.65 Wednesday
On Wednesday there is a holiday.
14.66 Thursday
On Thursday my mother is arriving.
14.67 Friday
On Friday we go to the mosque.
14.68 Saturday
On Saturday we go to the synagogue.
14.71 the month
There are twelve months in a year.
14.73 the year
A year normally lasts 365 days.
14.74 the winter
The winters are very cold here.
14.75 the spring(2)
The tree blooms in the spring.
14.76 the summer
The summers are very hot here.
14.77 the autumn/fall
In the autumn it gets cooler.
14.78 the season
There are only two seasons here, the dry season and the wet season.

Semantic field 15: Sense perception

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
15.21 to smell(1) '(intransitive) to have a particular smell' The flower smells pleasant.
15.212 to sniff 'to inhale through one's nose in order to smell something' He opened the milk and sniffed it.
15.22 to smell(2) '(transitive) to notice a particular smell' I think I smell gas!
15.25 fragrant 'good smelling'
15.26 stinking 'bad smelling'
15.31 to taste 'have a particular taste' This soup tastes very good.
15.35 sweet
The ripe fruit is sweet.
15.36 salty
The soup is too salty, add some water.
15.37 bitter
The medicine is bitter, take it with honey.
15.38 sour
Sprinkle a little sugar over the strawberries if they are sour.
15.39 brackish brackish water: 'water that is not pure but is slightly salty' brackish water
15.41 to hear
I heard the sound of rain splashing on the window.
15.42 to listen 'pay attention to a sound that one can hear' Listen to the strange noise in the engine.
15.44 the sound or noise 'something that one can hear' There were strange sounds coming from the next room.
15.45 loud
The music is very loud.
15.46 quiet 'not making much noise' We have to be quiet so as not to wake the baby.
15.51 to see
I see a house in the distance.
15.52 to look
I'm looking but I can't see the house.
15.55 to show
She showed me her house.
15.56 to shine
That lamp is shining in my eyes.
15.57 bright 'having a lot of light' I awoke from the bright sunlight.
15.61 the colour/color
My shirt is red, but I'd prefer a different colour.
15.62 light(2) (as opposed to dark)
15.63 dark
It is dark in the room because the lamp is broken.
15.64 white
(snow)
15.65 black
(charcoal)
15.66 red
(blood)
15.67 blue
(sky)
15.68 green
(leaves)
15.69 yellow
(yolk of chicken egg)
15.71 to touch 'put one's hand on something/someone so that one can feel them' The child wanted to touch everything.
15.712 to pinch 'press a part of someone's flesh very tightly between one's finger and thumb (so that it hurts)' Mum, the boy pinched me!
15.72 to feel 'touch something to get a tactile perception of it' Feel (the quality of) this cloth!
15.74 hard 'difficult to press down, break or cut' Diamond is the hardest substance known to man.
15.75 soft 'not hard, easy to press/break/cut' a soft pillow
15.76 rough(1) 'having an uneven surface' Her hands were rough from hard work.
15.77 smooth 'completely even/flat, so that the hand moves easiy over it' smooth skin
15.78 sharp
The knife is very sharp.
15.79 blunt
This knife is blunt and does not cut well.
15.81 heavy
The suitcase is too heavy for me to carry.
15.82 light(1) (in weight) You can carry this bag, it's fairly light.
15.83 wet 'covered in or full of liquid' He fell into the water, so his clothes are now wet.
15.84 dry 'without water or liquid inside or on the surface' The clothes were in the sun for a long time and are now dry.
15.85 hot
It's better to do the work now because later it'll be too hot.
15.851 warm
The sun is shining and there's no wind, so it's warm and you can go out without a coat.
15.86 cold
It's cold outside, so you need warm clothes.
15.87 clean
I washed my hands, so now they are clean.
15.88 dirty
My hands are dirty from the work, so I need to wash them before the meal.
15.89 wrinkled
the wrinkled face of a 90-year old man

Semantic field 16: Emotions and values

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
16.11 the soul or spirit

16.15 surprised or astonished

16.18 the good luck

16.19 the bad luck

16.23 happy

16.25 to laugh

16.251 to smile

16.26 to play

16.27 to love
I love you.
16.29 to kiss

16.3 to embrace

16.31 the pain

16.32 the grief

16.33 the anxiety

16.34 to regret or be sorry
I regret my mistake./I am sorrry about my mistake.
16.35 the pity

16.37 to cry 'to weep'
16.38 the tear

16.39 to groan

16.41 to hate

16.42 the anger

16.44 the envy or jealousy

16.45 the shame

16.48 proud

16.51 to dare

16.52 brave

16.53 the fear

16.54 the danger

16.62 to want 'to desire'
16.622 to choose

16.63 to hope

16.65 faithful

16.66 true

16.67 to lie(2) 'tell lies'
16.68 the deceit

16.69 to forgive

16.71 good

16.72 bad

16.73 right(2) 'correct'
16.74 wrong

16.76 the fault
It's your fault we missed the bus!
16.77 the mistake

16.78 the blame

16.79 the praise

16.81 beautiful

16.82 ugly

16.83 greedy

16.84 clever

Semantic field 17: Cognition

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
17.11 the mind 'the seat of intelligence (as opposed to 'heart' or 'soul' as the seat of emotions)' I don't know what's going on in her mind.
17.13 to think(1) 'reflect' You should think first before speaking.
17.14 to think(2) 'be of the opinion' I think that this is not right.
17.15 to believe 'be sure that someone is telling the truth' You shouldn't believe everything you read.
17.16 to understand
I do not understand why they left us so early.
17.17 to know
They know that we are coming today.
17.171 to guess
Guess how much money I have.
17.172 to imitate

17.18 to seem
The house seems to be empty.
17.19 the idea

17.21 wise

17.22 stupid

17.23 mad 'insane'
17.24 to learn
Where did you learn to cook so well?
17.242 to study
I have to study for my test.
17.25 to teach

17.26 the pupil
There are 10 pupils in the class, aged 6-7.
17.27 the teacher

17.28 the school
The children go to school every morning.
17.31 to remember
Do you remember the name of your first teacher?
17.32 to forget

17.34 clear 'clear to the mind' (the opposite of 'obscure') a clear explanation
17.35 obscure 'obscure to the mind' an obscure reason
17.36 secret

17.37 certain
It is certain that the theft occurred during the night.
17.38 to explain

17.41 the intention
It was not his intention to wake the baby up.
17.42 the cause
What was the cause of the accident?
17.43 the doubt

17.44 to suspect
The police suspected that he was a drug dealer.
17.441 to betray

17.45 the need or necessity

17.46 easy

17.47 difficult

17.48 to try 'to attempt (to do something)'
17.49 the manner 'the way in which something is done or happens'
17.51 and

17.52 because

17.53 if

17.54 or

17.55 yes

17.56 no

17.61 how?

17.62 how many?

17.63 how much?

17.64 what?
What is that thing on the table?
17.65 when?

17.66 where?

17.67 which?

17.68 who?

17.69 why?

Semantic field 18: Speech and language

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
18.11 the voice

18.12 to sing

18.13 to shout
"Be careful", he shouted, "a lion!"
18.15 to whisper

18.16 to mumble 'to say something too quitely and not clearly enough, so that it is difficult or impossible to hear' The little boy mumbled something about wanting to go to the toilet.
18.17 to whistle

18.18 to shriek 'to make a very high, loud sound'
18.19 to howl '(dog/wolf/other mammal:) to make a long, loud sound'
18.21 to speak or talk

18.211 to stutter or stammer

18.22 to say
She said she'd be late.
18.221 to tell 'tell (a story)' Our grandmother told us a story.
18.222 the speech 'oration' In his speech, the chief thanked the guests.
18.23 to be silent

18.24 the language

18.26 the word

18.28 the name
What's your name?
18.31 to ask(1) 'ask a question, inquire' "Where is your mother?", he asked.
18.32 to answer
I asked him where his mother was, but he didn't answer.
18.33 to admit
The suspect admitted he stole the car.
18.34 to deny
She denied she was the thief.
18.35 to ask(2) 'ask for something, request' She asked for a glass of water.
18.36 to promise

18.37 to refuse

18.38 to forbid

18.39 to scold 'to rebuke'
18.41 to call(1) 'to summon' The king called his ministers for a meeting.
18.42 to call(2) 'to give a name' The parents decided to call their son David.
18.43 to announce

18.44 to threaten

18.45 to boast

18.51 to write

18.52 to read

18.56 the paper
She took a piece of paper and wrote down her name.
18.57 the pen
You must use a pen, not a pencil.
18.61 the book

18.67 the poet

18.71 the flute
He plays the flute and she plays the violin.
18.72 the drum
Don't beat the drum so hard, it's too loud.
18.73 the horn or trumpet

18.74 the rattle 'a wooden instrument that makes a loud knocking noise [used by people watching football games]'

Semantic field 19: Social and political relations

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
19.11 the country
He has traveled to Japan, China, India, and many other countries.
19.12 the native country
After the civil war ended, the refugees were able to return to their native country.
19.15 the town 'an urban settlement' Farmers come into town to sell their produce.
19.16 the village 'a rural settlement' The farmers' fields are near their village.
19.17 the boundary
The province boundary is also the border between the two countries.
19.21 the people 'the populace, the inhabitants of a country (as opposed to the ruling class)' The president is unpopular, but the people adore his daughter.
19.23 the clan 'extended family' The entire clan lives in one large house.
19.24 the chieftain 'leader/ruler of a tribe/clan'
19.25 the walking stick

19.31 to rule or govern
The president ruled the country for 25 years.
19.32 the king
King David
19.33 the queen 'female monarch', not 'king's wife' Queen Elizabeth
19.36 the noble
Nobles are exempt from paying taxes.
19.37 the citizen
a citizen of Germany
19.41 the master as opposed to 'slave, servant'
19.42 the slave

19.43 the servant

19.44 the freeman
His mother was a slave, but his father was a freeman.
19.445 to liberate
King Rama V liberated the slaves in Siam.
19.45 to command or order 'tell someone to do something, using one's authority or power' The officer commanded them to line up against the wall.
19.46 to obey
Soldiers are expected to obey their superiors.
19.47 to permit
I am afraid I cannot permit my daughter to marry you.
19.51 the friend

19.52 the enemy

19.54 the neighbour
It's hard to sleep because the neighbors are noisy.
19.55 the stranger 'someone whom one does not know' She's not afraid of strangers.
19.56 the guest

19.565 to invite
We invited our neighbors to our place for dinner.
19.57 the host
The host offered his guests some wine.
19.58 to help

19.59 to prevent
The police prevented the demonstrators from entering the building.
19.61 the custom

19.62 the quarrel
We have a quarrel with the neighbors over their noise.
19.63 the plot 'conspiracy' There was a plot to kill the queen.
19.65 to meet
We agreed to meet in front of the theatre.
19.72 the prostitute

Semantic field 20: Warfare and hunting

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
20.11 to fight
The two tribes have been fighting for weeks.
20.13 the war or battle

20.14 the peace

20.15 the army 'military forces' The Roman army conquered Jerusalem.
20.17 the soldier

20.21 the weapons

20.22 the club 'large stick used as weapon'
20.222 the battle-axe

20.23 the sling

20.24 the bow 'used to shoot arrows'
20.25 the arrow 'used as a weapon'
20.26 the spear

20.27 the sword 'metal weapon with a handle, blade , and sheath'
20.28 the gun 'rifle' She shot the thief with a gun.
20.31 the armour 'metal or leather clothing worn by soldiers in former times to protect their body' The knight wore a shining armor.
20.33 the helmet
Put on your helmet when you ride a motorcycle.
20.34 the shield
He held up his shield to protect his head from the attack.
20.35 the fortress

20.36 the tower
From the tower you can see the entire town.
20.41 the victory

20.42 the defeat

20.43 the attack

20.44 to defend
He defended himself but the robber took his wallet.
20.45 to retreat

20.46 to surrender

20.47 the captive or prisoner

20.471 the guard
I wanted to go in but the guard wouldn't let me.
20.48 the booty

20.49 the ambush

20.51 the fisherman

20.52 the fishhook

20.53 the fishing line

20.54 the fishnet

20.55 the fish trap

20.56 the bait
Worms are used as bait.
20.61 to hunt

20.62 to shoot
She shot the intruder with her gun.
20.63 to miss 'miss a target' He shot at the bird but missed it.
20.64 the trap
The hunter lay a trap for the bear.
20.65 to trap
The hunter trapped a fox.

Semantic field 21: Law

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
21.11 the law 'a rule that people in a particular country (or administrative area) must obey' There ought to be a law against cutting down trees.
21.15 the court '(the judge and/or the jury in a) place where all the information concerning a crime is given so that it can be judged'
21.16 to adjudicate 'decide whether someone is guilty of a crime in court'
21.17 the judgment 'official decision given by a judge or a court of law'
21.18 the judge

21.21 the plaintiff

21.22 the defendant

21.23 the witness

21.24 to swear 'make a public official promise, especially in a court of law' I swear to tell the truth.
21.25 the oath 'act of swearing'
21.31 to accuse
She accused him of stealing her purse.
21.32 to condemn to find guilty or to sentence The judge condemned the defendant and sentenced him to two years in prison.
21.33 to convict 'to find guilty' He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
21.34 to acquit
The defendant was acquitted of all charges.
21.35 guilty
The judge found the defendant guilty.
21.36 innocent
He was punished even though he was innocent.
21.37 the penalty or punishment

21.38 the fine
I had to pay a fine of $100 for speeding.
21.39 the prison

21.42 the murder 'the crime of deliberately killing someone' Murder is punished very severely.
21.43 the adultery

21.44 the rape

21.46 the arson 'deliberately setting fire to something to cause damage'
21.47 the perjury

21.51 to steal

21.52 the thief

Semantic field 22: Religion and belief

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
22.11 the religion

22.12 the god

22.13 the temple 'general term for house of worship'
22.131 the church 'a Christian house of worship'
22.132 the mosque 'a Muslim house of worship'
22.14 the altar 'a raised place on which religious rites are performed'
22.15 the sacrifice 'ritual killing of an animal'
22.16 to worship 'to perform a rite in honor of a deity'
22.17 to pray 'to ask a deity for something' The farmers prayed for rain.
22.18 the priest 'clergy of any religion'
22.19 holy

22.22 to preach

22.23 to bless

22.24 to curse

22.26 to fast 'to refrain from eating'
22.31 the heaven 'the abode of deities'
22.32 the hell

22.35 the demon 'evil spirit'
22.37 the idol 'statue of a deity'
22.42 the magic

22.43 the sorcerer or witch

22.44 the fairy or elf

22.45 the ghost

22.47 the omen

22.50 the circumcision

22.51 the initiation ceremony

Semantic field 23: Modern world

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
23.1 the radio

23.11 the television

23.12 the telephone

23.13 the bicycle

23.135 the motorcycle

23.14 the car 'motor vehicle'
23.15 the bus

23.155 the train

23.16 the airplane

23.17 the electricity

23.175 the battery

23.18 to brake (when driving a vehicle)
23.185 the motor

23.19 the machine

23.195 the petroleum

23.2 the hospital

23.21 the nurse

23.22 the pill or tablet

23.23 the injection (of liquid drugs into the body)
23.24 the spectacles/glasses

23.3 the government

23.31 the president

23.32 the minister 'political (not religious)'
23.33 the police

23.34 the driver's license

23.35 the license plate

23.36 the birth certificate

23.37 the crime

23.38 the election

23.385 the address
The address is written on the envelope.
23.39 the number
number two
23.395 the street

23.4 the post/mail

23.41 the postage stamp

23.42 the letter 'epistula'
23.43 the postcard

23.44 the bank(financialinstitution) 'financial institution'
23.5 the tap/faucet

23.51 the sink 'washbasin'
23.52 the toilet

23.53 the mattress

23.54 the tin/can 'hermetically sealed metal container for preserved food'
23.55 the screw

23.555 the screwdriver

23.56 the bottle 'glass container for liquids with narrow neck'
23.565 the candy/sweets

23.57 the plastic

23.575 the bomb

23.58 the workshop 'small factory'
23.59 the cigarette

23.6 the newspaper

23.61 the calendar

23.62 the film/movie movie
23.63 the music

23.64 the song

23.9 the tea

23.91 the coffee

Semantic field 24: Miscellaneous function words

LWT code LWT label Meaning description Typical context
24.01 to be

24.02 to become
The caterpillar became a butterfly.
24.03 without

24.04 with

24.05 through
The car went through the tunnel.
24.06 not

24.07 this
this man
24.08 that
that woman
24.09 here

24.10 there

24.11 other
I don't want this one, give me the other one.
24.12 next

24.13 same
the same person
24.14 nothing
I saw nothing.